MIGRATION NETWORK

 

Abstract. Water scarcity reduction is one of the main challenge in the new millennium. The concepts of Virtual Water (VW) footprint and VW trade are fondant in respect to analyze water scarcity issues. Jose Graziano Da Silva at the last ministerial FAO meeting affirmed that this can be related, by others, on migration phenomena. With this paper we compare, by mean of the gravity equation, the two networks of VW trade and migration from an Econometric point of view and we propose and determine a measure of VW impact of migrants for each country of origin and for each country of destination, which we call Virtual Water Suitcase. We determined the unitary impacts of migration in VW trade (i.e. the VW suitcase), that is the variation of virtual water flux between countries associated to a variation of migration. This measure is increasing over time: it is equal to 321 m3 in 1990, 668.8 m3 in 2000 and 1464.5 m3 in 2010. The suitcase can be evaluated limiting to the links involving one single country of origin (suitcase of emigrants from this country) and one single country of destination (suitcase of immigrants in this country) at a time. The comparison between the two sets of suitcases for year 1990 is shown in the figure below.

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